Chemistry 20

Adapted from http://www.learnalberta.ca/ProgramOfStudy.aspx?ProgramId=525479&lang=en#

Unit A: The Diversity of Matter and Chemical Bonding

Key Concepts: The following concepts are developed in this unit and may also be addressed in other units or in other courses. The intended level and scope of treatment is defined by the outcomes,

  • chemical bond
  • ionic bond
  • covalent bond
  • electronegativity
  • polarity
  • valence electron
  • intramolecular and intermolecular forces
  • hydrogen bond
  • electron dot diagrams
  • Lewis structures
  • valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory

Specific Outcomes for Knowledge

Students will:
20-A1.1k recall principles for assigning names to ionic compounds

20-A1.2k explain why formulas for ionic compounds refer to the simplest whole-number ratio of ions that result in a net charge of zero

20-A1.3k define valence electron, electronegativity, Ionic bond and intramolecular force

20-A1.4k use the periodic table and electron dot diagrams to support and explain ionic bonding theory

20-A1.5k explain how an ionic bond results from the simultaneous attraction of oppositely charged ions

20-A1.6k explain that ionic compounds form lattices and that these structures relate to the compounds’ properties; e.g., melting point, solubility, reactivity.

20-A1.7k recall principles for assigning names to ionic compounds

20-A2.1k recall principles for assigning names to molecular substances

20-A2.2k explain why formulas for molecular substances refer to the number of atoms of each constituent element

20-A2.3k relate electron pairing to multiple and covalent bonds

20-A2.4k draw electron dot diagrams of atoms and molecules, writing structural formulas for molecular substances and using Lewis structures to predict bonding in simple molecules

20-A2.5k apply VSEPR theory to predict molecular shapes for linear, angular (V-shaped, bent), tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal and trigonal planar molecules

20-A2.6k illustrate, by drawing or by building models, the structure of simple molecular substances

20-A2.7k explain intermolecular forces, London (dispersion) forces, dipole-dipole forces and hydrogen bonding

20-A2.8k relate properties of substances (e.g., melting and boiling points, enthalpies of fusion and vaporization) to the predicted intermolecular bonding in the substances

20-A2.9k determine the polarity of a molecule based on simple structural shapes and unequal charge distribution

20-A2.10k describe bonding as a continuum ranging from complete electron transfer to equal sharing of electrons.

Unit B: Forms of Matter – Gases

Key Concepts: The following concepts are developed in this unit and may also be addressed in other units or in other courses. The intended level and scope of treatment is defined by the outcomes.

  • Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales
  • absolute zero
  • real and ideal gases
  • law of combining volumes
  • Charles’s law
  • Boyle’s law
  • ideal gas law
  • standard temperature and pressure (STP)
  • standard ambient temperature and pressure (SATP)

Specific Outcomes for Knowledge

Students will:

20-B1.1k describe and compare the behavior of real and ideal gases in terms of kinetic molecular theory

20-B1.2k convert between the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales

20-B1.3k explain the law of combining volumes

20-B1.4k illustrate how Boyle’s and Charles’s laws, individually and combined, are related to the ideal gas law (PV = nRT)

  • express pressure in a variety of ways, including units of kilopascals, atmospheres and millimetres of mercury
  • perform calculations, based on the gas laws, under STP, SATP and other defined conditions.

Unit C: Matter as Solutions, Acids, and Bases

Key Concepts: The following concepts are developed in this unit and may also be addressed in other units or in other courses. The intended level and scope of treatment is defined by the
outcomes.

  • homogeneous mixtures
  • solubility
  • electrolyte/nonelectrolyte acid
  • concentration
  • dilution
  • strong acids and bases
  • weak acids and bases
  • monoprotic/polyprotic acid
  • monoprotic/polyprotic base
  • Arrhenius (modified) theory of acids and bases
  • indicators
  • hydronium ion/pH
  • hydroxide ion/pOH
  • neutralization

Specific Outcomes for Knowledge

Students will:

20-C1.1k recall the categories of pure substances and mixtures and explain the nature of homogeneous mixtures

20-C1.2k provide examples from living and nonliving systems that illustrate how dissolving substances in water is often a prerequisite for chemical change

20-C1.3k explain dissolving as an endothermic or exothermic process with respect to the breaking and forming of bonds

20-C1.4k differentiate between electrolytes and nonelectrolytes

20-C1.5k express concentration in various ways; i.e., moles per litre of solution, percent by mass and parts per million

20-C1.6k calculate, from empirical data, the concentration of solutions in moles per litre of solution and determine mass or volume from such concentrations

20-C1.7k calculate the concentrations and/or volumes of diluted solutions and the quantities of a solution and water to use when diluting

20-C1.8k use data and ionization/dissociation equations to calculate the concentration of ions in a solution

20-C1.9k define solubility and identify related factors; i.e., temperature, pressure and miscibility

20-C1.10k explain a saturated solution in terms of equilibrium; i.e., equal rates of dissolving and crystallization

20-C1.11k describe the procedures and calculations required for preparing and diluting solutions.

20-C2.1k recall International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature of acids and bases

20-C2.2k recall the empirical definitions of acidic, basic and neutral solutions determined by using indicators, pH and electrical conductivity

20-C2.3k calculate H30+(aq) and OH-(aq) concentrations and the pH and pOH of acidic and basic solutions based on logarithmic expressions; i.e., pH = -log[H30+] and pOH = -log[OH-]

20-C2.4k use appropriate Systeme international (SI) units to communicate the concentration of solutions and express pH and concentration answers to the correct number of significant digits; i.e., use the number of decimal places in the pH to determine the number of significant digits of the concentration

20-C2.5k compare magnitude changes in pH and pOH with changes in concentration for acids and bases &

20-C2.6k explain how the use of indicators, pH paper or pH meters can be used to measure H30+(aq)

20-C2.7k define Arrhenius (modified) acids as substances that produce H30+(aq) in aqueous solutions and recognize that the definition is limited

20-C2.8k define Arrhenius (modified) bases as substances that produce OH”(aq) in aqueous solutions and recognize that the definition is limited

20-C2.9k define neutralization as a reaction between hydronium and hydroxide ions

20-C2.10k differentiate, qualitatively, between strong and weak acids and between strong and weak bases on the basis of ionization and dissociation; i.e., pH, reaction rate and electrical
conductivity

20-C2.11k identify monoprotic and polyprotic acids and bases and compare their ionization/dissociation.

Unit D: Quantitative Relationships in Chemical Changes

Key Concepts: The following concepts are developed in this unit and may also be addressed in other units or in other courses. The intended level and scope of treatment is defined by the outcomes.

  • chemical reaction equations
  • net ionic equations
  • spectator ions
  • reaction stoichiometry
  • precipitation
  • limiting and excess reagents
  • actual, theoretical and percent yield
  • titration
  • end point
  • equivalence point
  • titration curves for strong acids and bases

Specific Outcomes for Knowledge

Students will:

20-D1.1k predict the product(s) of a chemical reaction based upon the reaction type

20-D1.2k recall the balancing of chemical equations in terms of atoms, molecules and moles

20-D1.3k contrast quantitative and qualitative analysis

20-D1.4k write balanced ionic and net ionic equations, including identification of spectator ions, for reactions taking place in aqueous solutions

20-D1.5k calculate the quantities of reactants and/or products involved in chemical reactions, using gravimetric, solution or gas stoichiometry.

20-D2.1k explain chemical principles (i.e., conservation of mass in a chemical change), using quantitative analysis

20-D2.2k identify limiting and excess reagents in chemical reactions

20-D2.3k define theoretical yields and actual yields

20-D2.4k explain the discrepancy between theoretical and actual yield

20-D2.5k draw and interpret titration curves, using data from titration experiments involving strong monoprotic acids and strong monoprotic bases

20-D2.6k describe the function and choice of indicators in titrations

20-D2.7k identify equivalence points on strong monoprotic acid-strong monoprotic base titration curves and differentiate between the indicator end point and the equivalence point.

Adapted from http://www.learnalberta.ca/ProgramOfStudy.aspx?ProgramId=525479&lang=en#


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