Chemistry 30

Adapted from

Unit A: Thermochemical Change

Key Concepts: The following concepts are developed in this unit and may also be addressed in other units or in other courses. The intended level and scope of treatment is defined by the outcomes.

  • enthalpy of formation
  • enthalpy of reaction
  • ΔH notation
  • Hess’ law
  • molar enthalpy
  • energy diagrams
  • activation energy
  • catalysts
  • calorimetry
  • fuels and energy efficiency

Specific Outcomes for Knowledge

Students will: recall the application of Q = mcΔT to the analysis of heat transfer

30-A1.2k explain, in a general way, how stored energy in the chemical bonds of hydrocarbons originated from the sun

30-A1.3k define enthalpy and molar enthalpy for chemical reactions

30-A1.4k write balanced equations for chemical reactions that include energy changes

30-A1.5k use and interpret Annotation to communicate and calculate energy changes in chemical reactions

30-A1.6k predict the enthalpy change for chemical equations using standard enthalpies of formation

30-A1.7k explain and use Hess’ law to calculate energy changes for a net reaction from a series of reactions

30-A1.8k use calorimetry data to determine the enthalpy changes in chemical reactions

30-A1.9k identify that liquid water and carbon dioxide gas are reactants in photosynthesis and products of cellular respiration and that gaseous water and carbon dioxide gas are the products of hydrocarbon combustion in an open system

30-A1.10k classify chemical reactions as endothermic or exothermic, including those for the processes of photosynthesis, cellular respiration and hydrocarbon combustion.

30-A2.1k define activation energy as the energy barrier that must be overcome for a chemical reaction to occur

30-A2.2k explain the energy changes that occur during chemical reactions, referring to bonds breaking and forming and changes in potential and kinetic energy

30-A2.3k analyze and label energy diagrams of a chemical reaction, including reactants, products, enthalpy change and activation energy

30-A2.4k explain that catalysts increase reaction rates by providing alternate pathways for changes, without affecting the net amount of energy involved; e.g., enzymes in living systems.

Unit B: Electrochemical Changes

Key Concepts: The following concepts are developed in this unit and may also be addressed in other units or in other courses. The intended level and scope of treatment is defined by the outcomes.

  • oxidation
  • reduction
  • oxidizing agent
  • reducing agent
  • oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction
  • oxidation number
  • half-reaction
  • disproportionation
  • spontaneity
  • standard reduction potential
  • voltaic cell
  • electrolytic cell
  • electrolysis
  • standard cell potential
  • Faraday’s law
  • corrosion

Specific Outcomes for Knowledge

Students will: define oxidation and reduction operationally and theoretically

30-B1.2k define oxidizing agent, reducing agent, oxidation number, half-reaction, disproportionation

30-B1.3k differentiate between redox reactions and other reactions, using half-reactions and/or oxidation numbers

30-B1.4k identify electron transfer, oxidizing agents and reducing agents in redox reactions that occur in everyday life, in both living systems (e.g., cellular respiration, photosynthesis)and nonliving systems; i.e., corrosion

30-B1.5k compare the relative strengths of oxidizing and reducing agents, using empirical data

30-B1.6k predict the spontaneity of a redox reaction, based on standard reduction potentials, and compare their predictions to experimental results

30-B1.7k write and balance equations for redox reactions in acidic and neutral solutions by using half-reaction equations obtained from a standard reduction potential table developing simple half-reaction equations from information provided about redox changes assigning oxidation numbers, where appropriate, to the species undergoing chemical change

30-B1.8k perform calculations to determine quantities of substances involved in redox titrations.

30-B2.1k define anode, cathode, anion, cation, salt bridge/porous cup, electrolyte, external circuit, power supply, voltaic cell and electrolytic cell

30-B2.2k identify the similarities and differences between the operation of a voltaic cell and that of an electrolytic cell

30-B2.3k predict and write the half-reaction equation that occurs at each electrode in an electrochemical cell

30-B2.4k recognize that predicted reactions do not always occur; e.g., the production of chlorine gas from the electrolysis of brine

30-B2.5k explain that the values of standard reduction potential are all relative to 0 volts, as set for the hydrogen electrode at standard conditions

30-B2.6k calculate the standard cell potential for electrochemical cells

30-B2.7k predict the spontaneity or nonspontaneity of redox reactions, based on standard cell potential, and the relative positions of half-reaction equations on a standard reduction potential table

30-B2.8k calculate mass, amounts, current and time in single voltaic and electrolytic cells by applying Faraday’s law and stoichiometry.

Unit C: Chemical Changes of Organic Compounds

Key Concepts: The following concepts are developed in this unit and may also be addressed in other units or in other courses. The intended level and scope of treatment is defined by the learning outcomes.

  • organic compounds
  • naming organic compounds
  • structural formulas
  • structural isomers
  • monomers
  • polymers
  • aliphatic and aromatic compounds
  • saturated/unsaturated hydrocarbons
  • functional groups identifying alcohols, carboxylic acids, esters and halogenated hydrocarbons
  • esterification
  • combustion reactions
  • polymerization
  • addition, substitution
  • elimination

Specific Outcomes for Knowledge

Students will: define organic compounds as compounds containing carbon, recognizing inorganic exceptions such as carbonates, cyanides, carbides and oxides of carbon

30-C1.2k identify and describe significant organic compounds in daily life, demonstrating generalized knowledge of their origins and applications; e.g., methane, methanol, ethane, ethanol, ethanoic acid, propane, benzene, octane, glucose, polyethylene

30-C1.3k name and draw structural, condensed structural and line diagrams and formulas, using International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature guidelines, for saturated and unsaturated aliphatic (including cyclic) and aromatic carbon compounds containing up to 10 carbon atoms in the parent chain (e.g., pentane; 3-ethyl-2,4-dimethylpentane) or cyclic structure (e.g., cyclopentane) containing only one type of a functional group (with multiple bonds categorized as a functional group; e.g., pent-2-ene), including simple halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g., 2-chloropentane), alcohols (e.g., pentan-2-ol), carboxylic acids (e.g., pentanoic acid)and esters (e.g., methyl pentanoate), and with multiple occurrences of the functional group limited to halogens (e.g., 2-bromo-l-chloropentane) and alcohols (e.g., pentane-2,3-diol)

30-C1.4k identify types of compounds from the hydroxyl, carboxyl, ester linkage and halogen functional groups, given the structural formula

30-C1.5k define structural isomerism as compounds having the same molecular formulas, but with different structural formulas, and relate the structures to variations in the properties of the isomers

30-C1.6k compare, both within a homologous series and among compounds with different functional groups, the boiling points and solubility of examples of aliphatics, aromatics, alcohols and carboxylic acids

30-C1.7k describe, in general terms, the physical, chemical and technological processes (fractional distillation and solvent extraction) used to separate organic compounds from natural mixtures or solutions; e.g., petroleum refining, bitumen recovery.

30-C2.1k define, illustrate and provide examples of simple addition, substitution, elimination, esterification and combustion reactions

30-C2.2k predict products and write and interpret balanced equations for the above reactions

30-C2.3k define, illustrate and provide examples of monomers (e.g., ethylene), polymers (e.g., polyethylene) and polymerization in living systems (e.g., carbohydrates, proteins) and nonliving systems (e.g., nylon, polyester, plastics)

30-C2.4k relate the reactions described above to major reactions that produce thermal energy and economically important compounds from fossil fuels.

Unit D: Chemical Equilibrium Focusing on Acid-Base Systems

Key Concepts: The following concepts are developed in this unit and may also be addressed in other units or in other courses. The intended level and scope of treatment is defined by the outcomes.

  • chemical equilibrium systems
  • reversibility of reactions
  • Le Chatelier’s principle
  • equilibrium law expression
  • equilibrium constants Kc, Kw, Ka, Kf,
  • acid-base equilibrium
  • Brpnsted-Lowry acids and bases
  • titration curves
  • conjugate pairs of acids and bases
  • amphiprotic substances
  • buffers
  • indicators

Specific Outcomes for Knowledge

Students will: define equilibrium and state the criteria that apply to a chemical system in equilibrium; i.e., closed system, constancy of properties, equal rates of forward and reverse reactions

30-D1.2k identify, write and interpret chemical equations for systems at equilibrium

30-D1.3k predict, qualitatively, using Le Chatelier’s principle, shifts in equilibrium caused by changes in temperature, pressure, volume, concentration or the addition of a catalyst and describe how these changes affect the equilibrium constant

30-D1.4k define Kc to predict the extent of the reaction and write equilibrium-law expressions for given chemical equations, using lowest whole-number coefficients

30-D1.5k describe Brqnsted-Lowry acids as proton donors and bases as proton acceptors

30-D1.6k write Brpnsted-Lowry equations, including indicators, and predict whether reactants or products are favoured for acid-base equilibrium reactions for monoprotic and polyprotic acids and bases

30-D1.7k identify conjugate pairs and amphiprotic substances

30-D1.8k define a buffer as relatively large amounts of a weak acid or base and its conjugate in equilibrium that maintain a relatively constant pH when small amounts of acid or base are added.

30-D2.1k recall the concepts of pH and hydronium ion concentration and pOH and hydroxide ion concentration, in relation to acids and bases

30-D2.2k define Kw, Ka, K& and use these to determine pH, pOH, [H30+] and [OH”] of acidic and basic solutions

30-D2.3k calculate equilibrium constants and concentrations for homogeneous systems and Brqnsted-Lowry acids and bases (excluding buffers) when

  • concentrations at equilibrium are known
  • initial concentrations and one equilibrium concentration are known
  • the equilibrium constant and one equilibrium concentration are known.

Note: Examples that require the application of the quadratic equation are excluded; however, students may use this method when responding to open-ended questions.

Adapted from